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UNIT 13: GENERAL WAVE PROPERTIES

  • Wave motion

    • It is the transfer of energy

    • without (net) transfer of material medium

  • Types of waves

    • Transverse waves: These are waves in which the direction of wave-motion is perpendicular to the direction of vibration of source.

      • Examples: Rope waves, all kinds of electromagnetic radiations, water waves, etc.

    • longitudinal waves: These are waves in which the direction of wave-motion is parallel to the direction of vibration of source.

      • Examples: Sound waves, compressions and rarefactions in a slinky spring, etc.

  • Some terminologies related to the study of wave-motion are:

    • Crests: They are the high points. For longitudinal waves the term compressions is used.

    • Troughs: They are the low points. For longitudinal waves the term rarefactions is used.

    • Amplitude (A): It is the MAXIMUM displacement from the central position.

    • Wavelength (λ): It is the displacement between two neighbouring crests.

    • Frequency (f): It is the number of waves per unit time.

      • Unit: Hz

    • Period (T): It is the time taken to produce one complete wave.

    • Wavefront: It is the imaginary line on a wave that joins all the crests. Wavefronts can be

      • circular wavefronts

      • plane wavefronts

  • Formulae / Relationships

f = 1 / T

v = f λ

  • A ripple tank can help us study waves including

    • reflection

    • refraction

      • Remember “SSS” – Shallower Shorter Slower.

      • Frequency of a wave cannot change because it depends on source.

  • Electromagnetic spectrum

    • Different range of wavelength have been given different names, e.g., radio waves, infrared, etc.

    • They are all transverse waves.

    • They travel at 3,00,000,000 m/s in vacuum.

    • They slow down in other mediums.

    • They carry no charge.

  • Fluorescence: It is the visible light emitted during absorption of Ultraviolet, X-rays or Gamma rays.


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