• Thermionic emission: It is the effect in which when a metal is heated, some of the ‘free’ electrons gain enough kinetic energy to escape from the metal surface.

  • Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope

    • The component to be tested (e.g., a resistor or a mic) is connected across “Y-inputs”.

    • Controls

      • Gain” control adjusts the volts per division vertically

      • Timebase” control adjusts the milliseconds per division horizontally

      • Y-offset” control moves the waveform up or down

      • X-offset” control moves the waveform left or right

  • Circuit components

    • Resistor: Its purpose is to limit the flow of current.

      • Colour-code: A resistor has colour bands to show its resistance and tolerance.

        • For example, this is a 1500 Ω resistor:

      • Power rating of a resistor: It is the maximum amount of electrical energy per second (J/s or W) that the resistor can convert into heat without getting damaged.

        • Usually power rating depends on the size of the resistor.

        • Using resistors with large power ratings means that they will occupy more space on the circuit board.

        • Using resistors with lower (just enough) power ratings means that they may become damaged easily due to small fluctuations.

    • Thermistor: Its resistance decreases as the temperature increases.

    • Light-dependent resistor (L.D.R.): Its resistance decreases as brightness of light increases.

    • Capacitor: It can store charge. It takes time to get fully charged but then it can discharge instantly. Therefore, it has use in time-delay circuits.

  • Potential division

    • When resistors are connected in series, each resistor gets a share of the e.m.f. according its share of the total resistance.

      • For example, if three resistors R1, R2 and R3 are connected in series then potential difference across R1 can be calculated as:

        V1 = ( R1 / (R1 + R2 + R3) ) x e.m.f.

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